The aviation accidents we can all learn from

History shews that sadly we do not learn from history. Look at some of the accidents below and see if you can learn any of the HUMAN FACTOR lessons from them. No links at present but GOOGLE them, they are all on the net

December 16, 1960
Midair collision of UAL DC-8 and TWA Constellation over Staten Island, NY
On the morning of December 16, 1960, United Airlines Flight 826, a Douglas DC-8, collided with Trans World Airlines Flight 266, a Lockheed L1049 Super Constellation. The TWA aircraft crashed at Miller Airfield on Staten Island. The United DC-8, …more

November 11, 1965
United 727 at Salt Lake City
United Airlines Flight 227, a Boeing 727, crashed during an attempted landing at Salt Lake City Airport. The captain failed to recognize and arrest an excessive sink rate on final approach, resulting in a touchdown 335 feet short of the runway. Th …more

January 18, 1969
United 727 near Los Angeles
On January 18, 1969, United Airlines Flight 266, a Boeing Model 727-22C series airplane, crashed into Santa Monica Bay shortly after takeoff from Los Angeles International Airport (LAX). The takeoff occurred at night in light rain and fog. The a …more

December 29, 1972
Eastern L-1011 in Florida
Eastern Airlines Flight 401 crashed into the Florida Everglades while on approach to Miami International Airport. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) determined that the crash was the result of an inadvertent autopilot disconnection t …more

March 3, 1974
Turk Hava DC-10 in Paris
Turk Hava, Flight TK981, a McDonnell-Douglas DC 10-10, departed Orly Airport in Paris, France for London’s Heathrow Airport. Approximately 10 minutes after takeoff, Flight TK981’s radar signature was seen to split into two, with one part remaining …more

December 1, 1974
TWA Flight 514 B727 at Mt Weather, Virginia
While on descent for landing at Dulles International Airport in Washington, D.C., TWA Flight 514, a Boeing 727-231, impacted terrain about 25 miles from the airport. All 85 passengers and seven crew members were killed, and the aircraft was destr …more

March 27, 1977
KLM Flight 4805 collision with Pan Am Flight 1736 at Tenerife
Both aircraft – KLM Flight 4805, a Boeing 747-206B, Reg. No. PH-BUF; and Pan American (Pan Am) Flight 1736, a Boeing 747-121, Reg. No. N736PA, – had been diverted to Los Rodeos Airport on the Spanish island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands due to …more

February 11, 1978
Pacific Western Airlines Flight 314 at Cranbrook, BC Canada
A Boeing Model 737-275, powered by two Pratt & Whitney JT8D-9A engines, and operated by Pacific Western Airlines, crashed during landing at Cranbrook, British Columbia, Canada. The accident was determined to be the result of a loss of control dur …more

December 28, 1978
UAL Flight 173 near Portland
On December 28, 1978 a McDonnell Douglas DC-8-61 turbofan powered airplane operated by United Airlines and registered as N8082U, crashed into a wooded suburban area while on approach to Portland International Airport, Portland, Oregon.

Upon …more

May 25, 1979
American Airlines DC-10 at Chicago
During takeoff rotation, the left engine and strut assembly separated from the wing, and traveled over the wing, severing hydraulic lines in the associated area of the wing. Damage to the hydraulic lines caused a loss of hydraulic pressure and su …more

August 19, 1980
Saudi Arabian Airlines L1011 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
On August 19, 1980, Saudi Arabian Airlines Flight 163, L1011 registration number HZ-AHK, took off from the airport at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Seven minutes after take-off an aural warning indicated smoke in the aft cargo compartment. In response to …more

January 13, 1982
Air Florida 737 in Washington, D.C.
On January 13, 1982, Air Florida Flight 90, a Boeing Model 737-200 series airplane, crashed shortly after takeoff from Washington National Airport, Washington, D.C. The Boeing Model 737-200 experienced difficulty in climbing immediately following …more

June 2, 1983
Air Canada DC-9 at Cincinnati International Airport
While cruising at 33000 feet, at approximately 1903 eastern daylight time (EDT), the cabin crew informed the captain of a fire in the aft lavatory. At approximately 1908 the captain contacted Air Traffic Control (ATC) and declared an emergency. …more

August 12, 1985
Japan Airlines 747 at Gunma Prefecture
Approximately 12 minutes after departing Tokyo bound for Osaka, and just prior to reaching its planned cruising altitude of 24,000 feet, JAL 123 experienced an explosive decompression, caused by a rupture of the airplane’s aft pressure bulkhead. …more

August 22, 1985
British Airtours B737 at Manchester, UK
British Airtours Flight KT28M, a Boeing Model 737-200 series airplane, was taking off from Runway 24 at Manchester International Airport, Manchester, UK, when the left engine experienced an engine failure. The flightcrew aborted the takeoff, and …more

August 2, 1985
Delta L-1011 at Dallas
On August 2, 1985, a Lockheed L-1011 approaching to land at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport’s runway 17L encountered a microburst while attempting to pass through a rain shaft underneath a convective storm cell. The aircraft touched down …more

April 28, 1988
Aloha Airlines 737 at Maui
As Aloha Airlines Flight 243 leveled at flight level 240 on an inter-island flight from Hilo to Honolulu, an 18-foot-long section of the upper fuselage suddenly departed the airplane, sweeping a flight attendant overboard. The captain performed a …more

January 8, 1989
British Midland B737 Flight 92 at Kegworth
Approximately 13 minutes after takeoff from London’s Heathrow Airport, on a flight planned to Belfast, Ireland, the outer portion of a fan blade on the number one engine failed as the airplane was climbing through 28,000 feet. The fan blade failu …more

March 10, 1989
Air Ontario Fokker 28 at Dryden
Flight 1363, a Fokker 28 airplane operated by Air Ontario, departed Thunder Bay (Ontario) about one hour behind schedule, on a flight to Winnipeg, with an intermediate stop in Dryden.

During the stop in Dryden, heavy snow fell, covering, and …more

July 19, 1989
United DC-10 at Sioux City
United Airlines (UAL) Flight 232, a McDonnell Douglas DC-10-10, was a scheduled passenger flight from Stapleton International Airport in Denver, Colorado to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with an en route stop in Chicago, Illinois. On July 19, 1989, …more

February 1, 1991
USAir Flight 1493 runway collision with Skywest Flight 5569
Skywest Flight 5569, a Fairchild Metroliner SA-227-AC, was positioned on runway 24 left at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), and awaiting clearance for take-off from air traffic control. As the aircraft waited, USAir Flight 1493, a Boeing …more

September 11, 1991
Continental Express EMB-120 at Eagle Lake
Continental Express Flight 2574 broke up in flight during descent. The horizontal stabilizer, or top of the T-type tail, had separated from the fuselage before ground impact. Examination revealed that the 47 screw fasteners that would have attache …more

December 27, 1991
SAS MD-81 in Sweden
On December 27, 1991, at approximately 8:51am local time, SAS Flight SK 751, a McDonnell Douglas MD-81, OY-KHO, crash landed in an open field shortly after takeoff from Stockholm/Arlanda airport, Sweden. The fuselage broke into three pieces on im …more

January 20, 1992
Air Inter A320 at Strasbourg
Air Inter Flight 148 was on a scheduled night flight between Lyon and Strasbourg, France. The flight departed Lyon at 1740 local time. The crew originally planned to fly an approach to runway 23 at Strasbourg. However, runway 05 was the active run …more

September 13, 1993
Air France B747 at Tahiti
Air France Flight 072, a flight from Los Angeles, California to Tahiti was assigned the VOR DME approach to runway 22 at Faa’a International Airport. It was night, and the weather conditions were clear. The airplane was on a stabilized approach i …more

April 26, 1994
, 0705 UTC/September 12, 1993, 2105 Local
China Airlines A300 Flight 140 at Nagoya
China Airlines Flight 140 from Taipei, Taiwan to Nagoya, Japan executed takeoff climb and cruise phases of flight uneventfully. While the co-pilot was manually flying the ILS approach to runway 34 at Nagoya, and descending through 1,000 feet, he i …more

September 8, 1994
USAir 737 in Pennsylvania
USAir Flight 427 crashed while on approach to Pittsburgh International Airport following a loss of control and airplane stall precipitated by an encounter with the wake of a preceding Boeing Model 727 airplane. The National Transportation Safety …more

December 20, 1995
American Airlines Flight 965 near Cali
On the evening of December 20, 1995 at approximately 2142 Eastern Standard Time (equivalent to Cali, Colombia local time), American Airlines Flight 965 crashed into high terrain during approach to Alfonso Bonilla Aragon International Airport, Cali …more

May 11, 1996
ValuJet DC-9 in Florida
ValuJet Flight 592 crashed while attempting to return to Miami, Florida after experiencing a loss of control caused by an uncontrolled fire which started in the airplane’s forward cargo compartment. The National Transportation Safety Board determ …more

July 6, 1996
Delta Air Lines MD-88 Flight 1288
On July 6, 1996, at 1424 central daylight time, a McDonnell Douglas MD-88, N927DA, operated by Delta Air Lines Inc. as Flight 1288, experienced an engine failure during the initial part of its takeoff roll on runway 17 at Pensacola Regional Airpor …more

August 6, 1997
Korean Airlines 747 Flight 801
On August 6, 1997, during a non-precision approach to runway 06 left at A. B. Won Guam International Airport, Korean Airlines Flight 801 crashed at Nimitz Hill. Nimitz Hill is approximately three miles southwest of the airport, which is located at …more

June 1, 1999
American Airlines MD-82 Flight 1420 at Little Rock, AK
Shortly before midnight on the evening of June 1, 1999, American Airlines Flight 1420 crashed after the aircraft overran the end of runway 4R during landing at Little Rock National Airport in Little Rock, Arkansas. After departing the end of the …more

January 31, 2000
Alaska Airlines MD-83 near Anacapa Island
On January 31, 2000, about 1621 Pacific standard time, Alaska Airlines Flight 261, a McDonnell Douglas MD-83, N963AS, crashed into the Pacific Ocean about 2.7 miles north of Anacapa Island, California. All 88 people on board were killed and the ai …more

November 12, 2001
American Airlines A300 near JFK
American Airlines 587, an Airbus A300-600, N14053, crashed into a residential area of Belle Harbor, New York shortly after takeoff from Kennedy International Airport. All 260 people on board and five people on the ground died in the crash.

…more

May 25, 2002
China Airlines 747 near Taipei
On May 25, 2002, China Airlines Flight CI611, a Boeing Model 747-200 series airplane, experienced an in-flight breakup over the Taiwan Strait. The most probable cause of the accident was the structural failure of a 22-year-old tailstrike repair l …more

November 6, 2002
Luxair Flight 9642 at Luxembourg
On November 6, 2002, a Fokker F27 Mk 050 turboprop-powered airplane, owned and operated by Luxair and registered as LX-LGB, departed Berlin as Flight LG 9642/LH 2420 to Luxembourg. Inadequate landing visibility was reported at the destination airp …more

December 8, 2005
Southwest Flight 1248 at Midway
On December 8, 2005, Southwest Airlines Flight 1248 overran the runway during landing at Chicago Midway International Airport. The airplane rolled through a blast fence, an airport perimeter fence, and onto an adjacent roadway where it collided w …more

August 27, 2006
Comair CL600 at Lexington
On August 27, 2006, at approximately 6:06 AM local time, Comair Flight 5191, a Bombardier CL-600-2B19, crashed during takeoff from Lexington’s Blue Grass Airport (LEX), Lexington, Kentucky. All 47 passengers and two of the three crew members were …more

August 20, 2007
China Airlines B737 Flight 120 at Okinawa
On August 20, 2007, a Boeing 737-800 operated by China Airlines departed from Taiwan, Taoyuan International Airport on a regularly scheduled flight to Naha Airport, Okinawa, Japan. Following landing and leading edge slat retraction, a failed porti …more

The Single Engine Take Off Brief

Climbing straight ahead to 500 feet may not be the best option at every airfield-Pre flight planning should involve the take off path too!

The take off briefing is a briefing you give yourself before take off in a single pilot aircraft but when flying dual it can be given verbally to the instructor who may of course as commander override your briefing by adding, “ Should there be an emergency at any time during the flight I will take control”.

One of the largest differences between the professional approach to flying and the GA leisure approach is the poor attention to abnormal and emergency drills. The tick in the box approach is very convenient especially to the lazy instructor but it doesn’t produce pilots who are very capable of dealing with abnormal and emergency operation in a slick and efficient manner. As the 37 year old captain of a Ryan Air 737 said after a successful abandoned take off at Dublin which resulted after a Monarch Airbus entered the runway without clearance, “

THE TRAINING PAYS OFF”  (they stopped 300 metres short of the Monarch)

Ask yourself if you had an emergency on take off would you have rather have practised the drill a couple of minutes ago or 5 years ago. Professional pilots do this before every take off and they are in regular flying practice, the PPL holder is seriously disadvantaged by low experience and recency. However if you disagree or not one thing is certain if you cannot go through the motions in the relaxed environment of the taxiway you are very unlikely to be able get it right at 300 feet if the engine stops for real!

Here is a recent very sad engine failure after take off accident that occurred at Manchester Barton which highlights the need for timely practiced and rehearsed emergency drills.

It would seem that when the engine stopped the pilot did not take any action at all apart from making a mayday call before the aircraft stalled and control was lost.

http://www.aaib.gov.uk/cms_resources.cfm?file=/Piper%20PA-38-112%20Tomahawk%20G-RVRF%2004-12.pdf

This was an experienced pilot as PPLs go, he had a PPL(A) since 1988 and had flown

426 hours. Before gaining his PPL he had flown 460 launches in gliders.

Unfortunately the report doesn’t make it clear that if you are making an obstacle take off as opposed to a normal take off, where you just accelerate to the best rate of climb speed, the attitude is higher and the margin above the stall can be considerably lower. with an engine failure in this attitude it is vital the you push the nose over’ immediately to preserve the speed. Later tests conducted by the AIIB while investigating this accident showed that the pilot would have had only around 3 seconds to react before the aircraft stalled.

I also understand from unofficial sources that the pilot was wearing a high visibility vest. My understanding is that most of these vests are made from synthetic flammable material which makes the unesecarry wearing of these jackets inside the cabin pointless and risky in the event of an incident like this.

TAKE OFF BRIEF

This will be a flaps zero take off on runway 34 (don’t say, “flaps up”-that can mean any position)

For a left hand circuit

If there is a problem before rotate which prevents the aircraft from flying I will close the throttle and apply max braking effort and advise ATC

In the event of an engine failure after take off I will immediately push the nose over and attempt to find the best clear area either ahead or to the sides of the aircraft, The best glide speed is xxx

I will then (touch drill) close the throttle, mixture ICO, fuel off, mayday call, tell pax brace brace(unlatch/open door)

In the event of a problem that requires an immediate return I will turn xx  fly a low level circuit not below xxxx for runway xx advising atc

Notes

On stating flap setting confirm visually the setting

Leaving the circuit-climbing above  500 feet before turning

On the Warrior the student will have to turn the fuel off-ensure he/she has practiced doing this as a stopping lock has also to be operated.

This a dire emergency procedure that you need to react immeadiately to and fly the aircraft very close to its limit and at times aggressively to get the aircraft onto a clear piece of ground. Dont waste time looking for an ideal field as its unlikely it will presnt itself

THE PASSENGER BRIEFING

The commander of an aircraft is required by law to ensure that each passenger has received a safety briefing before departure. This can be through a personal brief or a laptop or even a card

PASSENGER BRIEFING-Factors to consider

Stay well away from the arc of the propeller at all times

Children must be under direct supervision at all times

The top surface of the wing can be slippery take care when boarding and disembarking the a/c

The C152 doors need slamming tight otherwise they can pop open on take off, Should a door open-if the doors Should doors come open on take off dont be alarmed it will not affect the aircrafts flight in anyway

Fasten your seat belts but also take the time to unfasten them so you can be sure you know how to operate them quickly

If I lift my hand at anytime please remain silent because I am either talking to ATC or listening out.

Please do not talk during the take off, climb out or on the descent and landing phase.

In the event of an unlikely emergency off airfield landing I will call BRACE BRACE if you are removing false teeth remove them, tighten your belt very tight

If you feel unwell or anxious at anytime tell me immediately

It is important that you know how to unlatch the door-like this

In the event of an emergency

Belts very tight for take off and at anytime I call BRACE BRACE

This is the brace brace position – picture

Please point out any aircraft in te air that you feel ate close to our aircraft co

Do not inflate your lifejacket until you are outside of the aircraft

The order of evacuation in the Warrior will normall be front right hand side pax first followed by rear seat passengers than left hand seat front occupant last

If the door becomes jammed for any reason kick out the perpex side windows to escape the aircraft in an emergency

MIB <mibcentral@gmail.com>

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