Ex 12 & 13 Performance Landings & Nosewheel Shimmy

Ignorance is the curse of God; knowledge is the wing wherewith we fly to heaven.
William Shakespeare

Aircraft performance is always better calculated before flight than during it!

Aircraft performance is always better calculated before flight than during it! This Tri Star pilot learned the hard way, at Leeds, that landing deep on a performance limiting runway can make passenger disembarkation quite challenging!

This article is about runway overrun, performance landing and possible loss of control due to NOSEWHEEL SHIMMY. It is based on a very interesting accident report describing an incident that took place at Montserrat involving a Britten-Norman BN2A-26, Islander, VP-MON.

The incident was caused by nose wheel shimmy which eventually resulted in the pilot steering the aircraft off the runway onto the grass to avoid a possible runway excursion and overrun down a hillside.

The full report is here:

Islander Accident

The first time you experience nosewheel shimmy it can be quite frightening especially if you are not sure what it is. The nosewheel oscillates from side to side quite violently causing large vibrations through the front cockpit area, although it feels much worse than it actually is. It seems to be much more common on Cessna 150/152/172 series aircraft. Nosewheel shimmy normally only occurs during the landing roll. The problem is that it can be very distractive and DISTRACTION is a major cause of poor aviation decision making.

An aircraft commander needs to be able to deal with making rational decisions while being distracted but it’s definitely not as easy as it sounds. For instance, learning to deal with smoke in the cockpit is a quite easy while sitting in the comfort of your living room but put yourself in an aircraft at several thousand feet above the ground, with your eyes watering so that you cannot see properly, with the passengers screaming and ATC asking what your intentions are will distract you to a point where even simple decision making can go horribly wrong, believe me!

In this Islander incident the inspectors report shows that the pilot used two incorrect techniques.

1. GPS ground speed on the approach (Use the ASI for speed control on the approach) Accurate threshold speed is critical on performance limiting runways

2. Holding the nose wheel off on landing, and delaying braking and then failing to apply continuous braking. It’s essential to get the nose wheel down straight away and apply maximum effort braking on a performance limiting runway. I also suspect this pilot could have touched down earlier than he did, accurate early touchdown is vital on short runways but never compromise any obstructions in the approach glide path funnel by ‘ducking under’. If the touchdown target position (which you must have for a performance landing) looks doubtful always immediately initiate a go around on a performance limiting runway.

As the report also importantly mentions, once you stop continuous braking you cannot be sure how the landing roll out will be affected in terms of distance. You cannot accurately measure landing roll out distance on ‘stop start’ braking, you can only measure roll out performance on CONTINUOUS braking that doesn’t lock the wheels, in other words, maximum effort braking. This is something to consider when undertaking a performance landing anywhere. Get the aircraft on the ground as early as safely possible (without compromising approach obstruction clearance)  and get the brakes applied as soon as possible using continuous pressure until taxy speed is reached, only briefly release the brakes if you experience a wheel locking up and after release immediately reapply the brakes again. You must apply CONTINUOUS braking pressure on a runway where distance is limiting if you wish to achieve the calculated performance  figures.

The AAIB report is not comprehensive in its recommendations, in my opinion, all though it’s good to see they have mentioned the possibility of flying a go around which may always be a solution to any landing problem although most pilots would probably not consider this after touchdown. You must however ensure THAT YOU HAVE SUFFICIENT DISTANCE REMAINING TO BECOME SAFELY AIRBOURNE. This is where judgement, based on solid experience, is critical, you have to eyeball the situation for yourself, you need to be able to get back into the air within the remaining runway and you also have to consider OBSTACLES in the climb out path especially if you are flying from a private strip as trees and hedges can sometimes be found in the most inconvenient of places!

In a situation such as this incident the decision making process has to be completed in a split second. Split second decisions are usually only made from a sound knowledge base coupled with good situation awareness and adequate pre flight planning (in this case local runway/airfield knowledge, performance and weather). Rapid decisions such as this do not have time for review (T – DODAR – Time, Diagnose, Options, Decide, Act, Review.), you generally have to get it right first time. If you are a student or low houred pilot it’s unlikely that you will have previous knowledge or experience of the situation you find yourself in. This is why good comprehensive flying training with an emphasis on Threat Error Management (TEM) and regular revison are vitally important.

For instance, how many of you reading this article had nosewheel shimmy properly explained to you before first solo or even know what it is now? If you have been correctly taught the pre flight inspection you should already know about the anti shimmy damper on the nosewheel oleo leg and its purpose. It’s wear in this damper that can lead to nosewheel shimmy although this cannot be detected by visual inspection of the damper.

Knowledge of what lies beyond the runway and to some extent either side of the runway is often overlooked in single engine operations. It’s always better to find out at the pre flight planning stage that there is sheer drop into the sea after the runway rather than as you sail over the cliff on an abandoned take off or an attempted late runway go around! There is no excuse these days for not doing your homework, Google Earth is great for revealing most surprises at the end of a runway. Try looking on Google Earth at Runway 23 at Cambridge and working out where you would go if you always followed the Tiger Moth Instructors Mantra of always climb straight ahead and had an engine failure!

Abandoning a take or initiating a runway go around needs some knowledge of the runway distance remaining and how many pilots actually know the last point on the runway at which they could safely get back into the air or stop if they had to? It’s something as instructors we have to think about frequently as some students may land ‘deep’ during touch and go’s and at night the situation is far more difficult to judge. Knowing the approximate mid point on a runway you are using assists this decision making process, as does working out the stop distance in your aircraft and having a rough idea where that position is on the runway you are using. So many pilots never give a thought to what can go wrong that when something does go wrong they are completely overtaken by the STARTLE EFFECT of surprise and distraction. Abandoned Take Off practice is useful and in particular its useful to see how much distance is needed to bring the aircfrat to a standstill. So many PPL students never ever practice abandoned take offs, yet another difference between amateur instruction and professional instruction. Minimum effort teaching produces a minimum knowledge student!

In this situation I would have most likely have braked continuously through the shimmy to a high taxy speed together with using full up elevator to take the weight off the nosewheel and improve the braking by aerodynamically putting more weight on the mainwheels. Using the elevator to aerodynamically remove the weight from the nosewheel and transfer it to the mainwheels isn’t mentioned in the report which is very surprising as its such an obvious thing to do. It is the weight going onto the nosewheel that exacerbates nosewheel shimmy (this is why it normally only happens on landing), so aerodynamically removing some of that weight helps prevent the shimmy or at least lessens it.

On reaching a fast taxy speed and forget Tiger Moth instructor folklore of taxying at fast walking speed, taxy speed is dependent on and proportional to circumstance and situation. I would then have decided if enough runway remained to stop and then would have considered steering off the hard surface as a last alternative. Why?

The aircraft was well capable of landing on this runway using the public transport factored distance, the increase in roll out distance was caused by holding the nosewheel off too long and releasing the brakes unnecessarily. Therefore straight line braking was well possible and desirable, especially if steering off the runway looked inevitable as in my opinion it’s better to steer off at the lowest speed not the highest!.

Always plan a performance landing (short field) as just that because if something does happen, as in this incident, half way through the decelarating roll out, you have more time and space to deal with it. This pilot put himself into a precarious position by wrong technique and poor technical knowledge, in my opinion. Yes, he did achieve a safe conclusion but any time you leave a runway by an abnormal route you risk severe airframe damage which in turn can lead to fire, as many off runway excursions have proved in aircraft of all sizes. The best place to stop an aircraft is in a straight line on a runway, that’s what runways are constructed for! However if you feel there is insufficient runway remaining and there is a big surprise waiting for you at the end of the runway such as a cliff or hillside, of course you must consider a deviation to keep the aircraft intact but this must be a last alternative. The emphasis is on ‘intact’ here and of course you do know what obstructions are on each side of your home airfield runways if you ever had to take this action? Umh, I wonder!

Shimmy is speed related and will only happen within a narrow speed range, releasing the brakes will most likely prolong the shimmy as it will keep the aircraft within the critical speed range for longer. Maximum effort braking may well exacerbate the shimmy but will very quickly take the aircraft through the critical speed and stop the shimmy, something the AAIB inspector has also failed to mention in his report! I’ve experienced shimmy on aircraft and on both racing cycles and motorcycles. On motorcycles high speed shimmy is very frightening and can be very dangerous but again it is speed critical and once the machine is accelerated or decelerated below the critical speed the shimmy will stop.

lion airAlways remember that the area past the end of the runway may not be suitable for aircraft deceleration! (and always inflate your lifejacket when outside the aircraft)

Fly safe, safety is no accident!
All comments in these pages are my own views and are not presented as fact, merely opinion. You should ensure you are thoroughly up to date with the latest recommendations of the aircraft manufacturers and the CAA.

Article reviewed and re edited on January 10th 2017 – Main change T added to T-DODAR (T = Time, how much time have we got to make the decision)

Comments, criticisms or opinions are welcome, if you are logged into WordPress you can leave them here or you can contact me directly at ministryofflying AT gmail.com

One thought on “Ex 12 & 13 Performance Landings & Nosewheel Shimmy

  1. Very interesting read as always.
    I’ve been taught to keep the nose wheel off for as long as possible? – is getting the nose wheel down early only on a performance limiting runway, or am I correct in holding off the nose wheel for as long as possible? – e.g. a small aircraft at Halfpenny.

    Also, I’d never heard of shimmy despite of having completed a few solos.

    Thanks,
    Darren
    —————————————————————————————–
    Hello Darren
    Airmanship is taking the safest and most effective action in any set of given circumstances. In the case you describe with plenty of runway and time, the safest and most effective course of action is to lower the nose onto the runway and brake for the exit you want to take. In other word don’t cane the brakes and then have to taxy 200 yards to the exit. Hot brakes do not perform as well as cool brakes, always keep that in mind. Aerodynamic braking will never be as good as using the wheel brakes, on any aircraft but holding the nose high does increase aerodynamic braking but again its not the most effective way of stopping the aircraft. However if its your aircraft and you pay for brake maintenance yourself you may see this from a different perspective!

    On a performance limiting runway you must do as mentioned in the above article.
    Best wishes JP

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